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Scientific Papers

Welcome to our library of scientific papers relating to the science of membrane emulsification and encapsulation. Use our website site search tool to help locate papers relating to a specific research aspects.

Membrane emulsification for the production of suspensions of uniform microcapsules with tunable mechanical properties

MehdiMaleki, Clément de Loubens, Kaili Xie, Emeline Talansier, Hugues Bodiguel, Marc Leonetti

A way forward for high throughput fabrication of microcapsules with uniform size and mechanical properties was reported irrespective of the kinetic process of shell assembly. Microcapsules were produced using lab-scale emulsification equipment with a micro-engineered membrane in the size range 10–100μm. The shell of the microcapsules was assembled at the water-oil interface by complexation of polyelectrolytes or cross-linking of proteins providing two different kinetic processes. Elasticity of microcapsules was characterized with an automated extensional flow chamber. Process parameters were optimized to obtain suspensions with size variations of 15%. Some strategies were developed to obtain uniform elastic properties according to the kinetics of shell assembly. If kinetics is limited by diffusion, membrane emulsification and shell assembly have to be split into two steps. If kinetics is limited by the quantity of reactants encapsulated in the droplet, variations of elastic properties result only from size variations.

Monodisperse Liquid Foams via Membrane Foaming

Laura Carballido, Miriam Dabrowski, Friederike Dehli, Lukas Koch, Cosima Stubenrauch*
Institute of Physical Chemistry
Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
*cosima.stubenrauch@ipc.uni-stuttgart.de, 0049 711 685-64470​

Hypothesis
It is possible to generate fairly monodisperse liquid foams by a dispersion cell, which was originally designed for the generation of fairly monodisperse emulsions. If this is the case, scaling-up the production of monodisperse liquid and solid foams will be no longer a problem.

Experiments
We used the dispersion cell - a batch process - and examined the influence of stirrer speed, membrane pore diameter and injection rate on the structure of the resulting liquid foams. We used an aqueous surfactant solution as scouting system. Once the experimental conditions were known we generated gelatin-based liquid foams and methacrylate-based foamed emulsions.

Findings
We found that (a) the bubble size of the generated liquid foams can be adjusted by varying the membrane pore diameter, (b) no stirrer should be used to obtain monodisperse foams, and (c) the bubble size is not influenced by the air injection rate. Since (i) the output for all investigated systems is up to two orders of magnitude larger compared to microfluidics and (ii) the membrane technology can very easily be scaled-up if run in a continuous process, the use of membrane foaming is expected to be heavily used for the generation of monodisperse liquid and solid foams, respectively.

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